The Word “Bokeh” Has Been Completely Usurped

As much as I love making beautiful images, and as much as I love using selective focus, I don't say that this image has "lots of bokeh," because it doesn't.
As much as I love making beautiful images, and as much as I love using selective focus, I don’t say that this image has “lots of bokeh,” because it doesn’t.

As someone who appreciates language and its correct, accurate use, I am aggravated to conclude that the photography community has completely usurped and perverted the word “bokeh.”

Old lenses like this 1960s-era Minolta 28mm have very different looks than today's computer-designed lenses.
Old lenses like this 1960s-era Minolta 28mm have very different looks than today’s computer-designed lenses.

Originally, this term, sometimes loosely translated from Japanese as “blur” or “haze,” referred to the quality of out-of-focus portions of a photograph. Thus, it didn’t describe how far out of focus something was, nor did it describe how much of a photo was out of focus.

It’s been vernacularized. Since we live in a society of abbreviators, it has become a catch-all abbreviation for any occasion we use or see selective focus or shallow depth of field.

“Wow. Look at all that bokeh!”

“You need a 50mm f/1.2 to get more bokeh!”

“I’m a bokeh slut.”

“This lens is a bokeh beast.”

“This tree’s leaves look like bokeh.”

Selective focus is an excellent tool in the photographic toolbox, but it should never be a goal into itself.
Selective focus is an excellent tool in the photographic toolbox, but it should never be a goal into itself.

We’re all using this term incorrectly, which continues to erode the beauty and precision of language. A good analog for it might be “LOL,” which once stood for “Laughing Out Loud,” but which today is a word unto itself. LOL.

I used the "portrait" mode on my iPhone 7 Plus. It creates a false selective focus with a false bokeh, which I guess we could call fokeh.
I used the “portrait” mode on my iPhone 7 Plus. It creates a false selective focus with a false bokeh, which I guess we could call fokeh.

Another enduring myth of photography is the sensor size myth. We see it every day: photographers buy large sensors because they have “better bokeh.” In fact, sensors have  no effect on bokeh at all, and their effect on selective focus is thoroughly misunderstood. Depth of field is the result of aperture, focal length and magnification. The reason it is so prevalently associated with sensor size is that with a larger sensor, you have to move closer to the subject to fill the frame with the same lens. Moving closer makes the depth of field shallower, but the sensor size does not.

Maybe what fools most of the people most of the time is that photographers don’t move closer and end up with more of the image out of focus, as in the following examples…

This is an image made with my d700 - a so-called "full-frame" camera (a 36x24mm sensor) - with my AF-S Nikkor 85mm f/1.8 at f/2. Compare it to...
This is an image made with my d700 – a so-called “full-frame” camera (a 36x24mm sensor) – with my AF-S Nikkor 85mm f/1.8 at f/2. Compare it to…
... this image made with the same lens, same aperture, same distance, same ISO, same lighting. The only difference is the size of the sensor - the Nikon D80 has a so-called "cropped" sensor (24mm x 15mm). Look at the out-of-focus area. See any difference?
… this image made with the same lens, same aperture, same distance, same ISO, same lighting. The only difference is the size of the sensor – the Nikon D80 has a so-called “cropped” sensor (24mm x 15mm). Look at the out-of-focus area. See any difference?

Sorry full-framiacs.

This is all part of a sour evolution of photography from mastery to money. Not only do the camera and lens manufacturers want you to believe their myths, they encourage consumers to espouse these myths, and they do. Not only do we hear a lot of “should I buy XYZ?” but also a frightening amount of “you should but XYZ.” It’s an unambiguous victory for commerce, but a crippling obstacle for artistry.

These are plums I grew this spring. I photographed them with my AF-S 35mm f/1.8 at f/2.0.
These are plums I grew this spring. I photographed them with my AF-S 35mm f/1.8 at f/2.0.

Imaging Today and in the Film Era

This 2001 Ilford FP-4 Plus film image of a mesa in northwestern New Mexico is an excellent example of the kind of tonal quality film can produce.
This 2001 Ilford FP-4 Plus film image of a mesa in northwestern New Mexico is an excellent example of the kind of tonal quality film can produce.

Sometimes when I remember events in my life from when I was younger, I wonder why I didn’t take as many photos as I imagine I should have. I am, after all, a professional photographer, and I should have been the one to document that ski trip in 1990, that nighttime glow-in-the-dark Frisbee game, that beautiful 105mm lens I sold.

So why didn’t I take all those pictures back in the film era?

  • It wasn’t like that back then. Digital photography, particularly smartphone photograph, has created the misperception that we all need a thousand photos of our lives every day, and if you aren’t photographing every meal and every sunset, you are a flip-phone neo-Luddite.
  • Shooting lots of frames equalled expensive processing, or in my case, laborious darkroom work. It’s easy to forget that one of digital photography’s most revolutionary aspects is its affordability. You can shoot 10 or 100 or a 1000 images, with very little added cost. Have you priced a roll of film and the price to get it developed lately? It was expensive in 1990, too.
  • I actually was taking a lot of pictures. If I shot 20 frames at a friend’s birthday party, his wife might have shot three frames with her point-and-shoot.

I often feel this way about the slim number of electives I took in high school. I see kids today active in sports, farm and ranch, yearbook, web development, cheer, and more, and wonder why I wasn’t. But, it wasn’t like that back then. My school allowed one non-academic elective, and for me, it was yearbook.

Before there was Lightroom, there was the light table, which allowed us to look at our film and edit it.
Before there was Lightroom, there was the light table, which allowed us to look at our film and edit it.

I want to marry these thoughts with a trend I have been observing recently…

This is a film scan from December 1999. At that time in our newspaper's history, we were able to use color photos a couple of times a week, and they required a little bit of planning, so I at a basketball game I might shoot one roll of color film alongside eight rolls of black-and-white.
This is a film scan from December 1999. At that time in our newspaper’s history, we were able to use color photos a couple of times a week, and they required a little bit of planning, so I at a basketball game I might shoot one roll of color film alongside eight rolls of black-and-white.

There is a huge hipster/millenial move right now toward shooting film. I certainly find any efforts to amp our creativity to new levels very laudable. I don’t, however, think shooting film is the way I want to go, and here’s why…

  • If you are scanning your film to create a digital product, you are shooting digitally. The only way to shoot completely analog is to develop your film and print your film using an enlarger. Doing otherwise creates an unnecessary and wasteful step in creating a digital image.
  • Photographers are feeling out-competed by a crowded market, and want to step aside and be thought of as geniuses or magicians again. I feel this, too. Rank amateurs are learning to photograph the Milky Way by watching YouTube tutorials, taking that away from professionals.
  • When digital arrived on the scene in the late 1990s, it was the solution to all the problems we faced with film. With film, grain was obvious at even modest ISO settings, film stuck us with one ISO setting for each roll or film, film faced the possibility of accidental exposure ruining film or paper, film required a time-consuming process that created pollutants, film only allowed a limited ability to review images in the field (Polaroids) and and film had a higher-than-digital cost per frame.
  • Some photographers claim they like the “look” of film. But photographers almost always make some kind of “look” edit in software to their scanned film files, usually in a way they could do better with an original digital file.
I made this black-and-white film image at Palo Duro Canyon in May 2002. It was one of the last times I shot film on a hiking trip.
I made this black-and-white film image at Palo Duro Canyon in May 2002. It was one of the last times I shot film on a hiking trip.

It’s absolutely true that I made many great images on photographic film during the first half of my career, but it is equally true that I heard many great songs on AM radio when I was growing up, but I haven’t tuned to an AM radio station to listen to music in 20 years.

I feel convinced that this hipster movement is just a fad. I’m certainly glad that someone out there is having fun with film, I am aware that there are reasons to keep film alive, and I am in possession of a number of great film cameras in good working order. But there are very few new film cameras being made, film is getting harder to obtain and more expensive, and when was the last time you used an enlarger to make prints in a real darkroom?

If you feel like you are struggling creatively, maybe you don’t need either film or a new digital camera. Maybe you need to find a narrative. You need to take your imaging from technical recording to storytelling. You need to push the limits of fundamentals like light and composition. Nothing between your hands will inspire you as much as anything in your heart.

I bought a cheap knockoff of a "Lensball" last year, hoping it would bring something new to my imaging options. At $17, there's really no down side to it.
I bought a cheap knockoff of a “Lensball” last year, hoping it would bring something new to my imaging options. At $17, there’s really no down side to it.

Note: I wrote this here first, but used it as my June 1, 2019 column.

A Nod to My Old School

I spotted our friend, aspiring journalist Ashlynd, at the scrimmage and made this image. Kodak digital cameras had a unique, and appealing, color pallet.
I spotted our friend, aspiring journalist Ashlynd, at the scrimmage and made this image. Kodak digital cameras had a unique, and appealing, color pallet.

Sometimes I like to get out old gear and shoot with it, with the goal of making certain I don’t rely too heavily on technology to get my job done well. Yesterday I was inspired to dig my Kodak DCS 720x out of its box at the bottom of the gear cabinet to shoot a football scrimmage at the local college, and although that technology is from 2001, I made some great images with it. Look for them in my newspaper next week!

I read recently that Kodak only made about 1600 720x cameras. I’m not surprised, as the company was already deep into its inexorable slide toward bankruptcy.

The Kodak DCS 720x sits next to one of my Nikon D2Hs, making it look tiny by comparison. Despite its age, the Kodak can still make great images in the right hands.
The Kodak DCS 720x sits next to one of my Nikon D2Hs, making it look tiny by comparison. Despite its age, the Kodak can still make great images in the right hands.

The Sweet Morning Fog

I shot this on my way to work this morning, fortuitous that my first assignment required a different route to work than I usually take. I jumped out of my car and half-ran across a mostly-empty four-lane highway to get into position.

Steam billows over a farm pond between Byng and Ada, Oklahoma Saturday morning, March 16; shot with the Nikon D300S and the AF-S Nikkor 80-200mm f/2.8.
Steam billows over a farm pond between Byng and Ada, Oklahoma Saturday morning, March 16; shot with the Nikon D300S and the AF-S Nikkor 80-200mm f/2.8.

A Look Back: the FujiFilm FinePix S4500

The Fujifilm FinePix S4500 Digital Camera
The Fujifilm FinePix S4500 Digital Camera
Our son-in-law Tom Reeves uses his FinePix S4500 to photograph the World War II National Memorial in Washington DC in 2013.
Our son-in-law Tom Reeves uses his FinePix S4500 to photograph the World War II National Memorial in Washington DC in 2013.

My wife Abby and I gave this camera, the Fujifilm FinePix S4500, to Abby’s daughter Chele and her husband Tom in 2013. Tom used it extensively on a trip we made to visit him that year in Baltimore, to photograph a D.C. walking tour.

Abby and I have several FinePix cameras (like the HS30EXR,) which have become our favorites when we place having fun at the top of the list, like when we are hiking, on the road, or at an event like family reunions. Smaller cameras like the these, in a class referred to as bridge, walkaround or crossover, allow the handling of a DSLR while offering the convenience of a point-and-shoot or even a smartphone.

I made this wide angle view of an exterior while working in December using the S4500. As you can see, it is sharp, and color is good.
I made this wide angle view of an exterior while working in December using the S4500. As you can see, it is sharp, and color is good.
Later that evening made this image of the House on Goose Hill at the telephoto end of the S4500's zoom. I is not as sharp as the wide angle end, but usable.
Later that evening made this image of the House on Goose Hill at the telephoto end of the S4500’s zoom. I is not as sharp as the wide angle end, but usable.
  • The S4500 features a versatile wide-to-telephoto zoom lens, but doesn’t not have a zoom ring or a manual focus ring, relying instead on a W and T rocker switch around the shutter release for zooming. There is no option for manual focusing, though I seldom use manual focus on my other bridge cameras.
  • In hand, this camera handles like a camera, not like a toy or a computer, which is why Abby and I were attracted to it.
A big plus to cameras in this class is the huge zoom range they offer, making it a one-camera solution for all kinds of photography.
A big plus to cameras in this class is the huge zoom range they offer, making it a one-camera solution for all kinds of photography.
  • The sensor in this camera is quite small at 6.17mm x 4.55 mm, both to keep the camera compact, and to make it cheaper to manufacture.

    14 Megapixels is enough, particularly when each pixel is so small crammed into a sensor the size of a raisin.
    14 Megapixels is enough, particularly when each pixel is so small crammed into a sensor the size of a raisin.
  • There is an electronic viewfinder and a display on the back of the camera. For my work, an electronic or optical viewfinder is a must, though I know most people get along fine with the arm’s-length view that smartphones provide.
  • Color is good; this is a Fuji strength for me, though not everyone agrees.
  • High ISO noise makes the camera unusable in low light. I tried to make a feature photo of the score table at a basketball tournament, and it was a mess.
  • The S4500 has a real PASM exposure dial, a must for me. Of course, it can fall back on green box (red in Fuji’s case) mode and scene modes, which I never use.
  • Like a lot of lenses on this class of cameras, this 24-500mm “equivalent” zoom is a jack of all trades but master of none. It is an especially mediocre telephoto.
The FinePix S4500 has a pretty standard control setup. Zooming is via a ring around the shutter release.
The FinePix S4500 has a pretty standard control setup. Zooming is via a ring around the shutter release.
  • Other controls are where I like them, though over the years I’ve worked with so many cameras (due to teaching photography), I almost always have to search for where electronics engineers put them. Making the same functions a little different in every camera generation and every brand doesn’t really serve photography, but is all about marketing and creating entertainment in camera sales.
Tom, Robert and I make pictures in a mirrored display near the Capitol in Washington D.C.
Tom, Robert and I make pictures in a mirrored display near the Capitol in Washington D.C.

Like all tools in our photographic tool box, the FinePix S4500 has a place. It is fun and easy to use, lightweight and quiet, and does a lot more than a smartphone. I am very glad we got this one for Tom and Chele.

Tom and Chele share a moment as they make pictures with their FinePix S4500.
Tom and Chele share a moment as they make pictures with their FinePix S4500.

Super Blood Wolf Moon

The lunar eclipse of Jan. 20-21, 2019 is the last total lunar eclipse visible across the United States for the next 18 years.
The lunar eclipse of Jan. 20-21, 2019 is the last total lunar eclipse visible across the United States for the next 18 years.

I hosted a lunar eclipse party for the so-called Super Blood Wolf Moon Sunday night, Jan. 20 into the early morning hours of Jan. 21. I felt it went exactly as I had hoped, with between ten and 20 in attendance, some watching, some making pictures.

The earth's moon is visible in the upper left portion of this frame as it becomes eclipsed by the shadow of the earth Sunday night, Jan. 20, 2019. The constellation Orion is visible in the upper right section of the frame, shot from the Pontotoc Technology Center in Ada. I made this images with my aging but excellent AF Nikkor 20mm f/2.8.
The earth’s moon is visible in the upper left portion of this frame as it becomes eclipsed by the shadow of the earth Sunday night, Jan. 20, 2019. The constellation Orion is visible in the upper right section of the frame, shot from the Pontotoc Technology Center in Ada. I made this images with my aging but excellent AF Nikkor 20mm f/2.8.
My old 400mm f/3.5 Nikkor isn't a telescope, but it can make decent pictures of the moon.
My old 400mm f/3.5 Nikkor isn’t a telescope, but it can make decent pictures of the moon.

The evening was cold and got colder as the wind gradually picked up. My entourage stuck around in their camp chairs and blankets until the moon turned reddish with a touch of purple and blue, then packed up and went home as the wind continued to increase. The cold got sharp enough that I got my camp coat, the warmest garment I own.

I made the tight images of the moon in its phases with my 1985-vintage Nikkor 400mm f/3.5 IF-ED, mated to its excellent Nikon TC-14 teleconverter. On my Nikon D7100, a camera with a 25mm x 15mm sensor, the full moon still  fills up less than a sixth of the frame.

A group of intrepid sky gazers brave cold temperatures as they watch as the lunar Eclipse of Jan. 20, 2019 at the Pontotoc Technology Center.
A group of intrepid sky gazers brave cold temperatures as they watch as the lunar Eclipse of Jan. 20, 2019 at the Pontotoc Technology Center.

As the totality approached, exposures changed drastically, from the bright-daylight values of the moon in total sun, to brightness values so dim it wasn’t always easy to find the moon easily.

Details are visible in this images as the Earth's shadow creeps upwards on the face of the moon Sunday night, Jan. 20.
Details are visible in this images as the Earth’s shadow creeps upwards on the face of the moon Sunday night, Jan. 20.

This eclipse had a different look to it than the last lunar eclipse I photographed in 2015, which was yellow and orange, and more contrasty against the night sky.

I was so glad I was able to host an event like this.

The moon moves into the shadow of the earth in this 75-minute composite image of the lunar eclipse Sunday, Jan. 20, 2019, viewed from the Pontotoc Technology Center in Ada.
The moon moves into the shadow of the earth in this 75-minute composite image of the lunar eclipse Sunday, Jan. 20, 2019, viewed from the Pontotoc Technology Center in Ada.

The Basics

You would think the nature of basic camera operations like aperture and shutter speed would be fundamental to teaching photography, but a surprising number of students, even college students who have had a photography class, know next to nothing about them.
You would think the nature of basic camera operations like aperture and shutter speed would be fundamental to teaching photography, but a surprising number of students, even college students who have had a photography class, know next to nothing about them.

My newspaper and I had another intern the last couple of weeks, a nice young college kid named Ashlynd. She is very enthusiastic about becoming a journalist, and we can already tell she’s going to be a good writer.

Ashlynd told me she didn’t much care for her college photography classes, echoing a number of students who came to me over the years needing help with very basic photographic skills, skills they should have gotten from previous instructors.

Yes, I understand that college is held to a different standard than other fields of instruction. At the same time, I wonder how college students get into photography classes without demonstrating some understanding of their prerequisites. I remember being vetted by an instructor in college before I was allowed to get into her class, though I don’t know how a lot of my classmates managed to get in.

Seriously. Students tell me all the time, “That professor didn’t tell me about aperture or shutter speed or ISO or…” You get the idea.

I appreciate the idea that the purpose of college is to educate at the next level, but I also appreciate that if you don’t learn the very basics, it’s difficult to advance. I also appreciate all the really great college photography instructors who can set aside their egos and cater to their students. The students and their families, after all, are paying for it.

Making a simple portrait of our neighbor's dog seems like very basic photography, but people come to me all the time asking me how I did it, and I'm happy to help them.
Making a simple portrait of our neighbor’s dog seems like very basic photography, but people come to me all the time asking me how I did it, and I’m happy to help them.

I’ve been teaching since 2007. When I teach Intro to Digital Photography at the Pontotoc Technology Center, I start at the beginning. That’s the only way it can work. Almost everyone in those classes is holding a camera that is set to shoot the way it was when they opened the box, attached a lens, charged the battery, and started shooting. In the biz we refer to this setting as “green box mode,” since most cameras have a big green box or icon on the exposure mode dial, often marked with an “A” or the word “Auto.” This setting essentially takes over almost all the settings, making a potentially powerful camera into a point-and-shoot.

Is there a solution to college kids who don’t get what they need from classes? Is there such a thing as remedial photography?

I’ll marry this idea to one I experienced in Santa Fe, New Mexico in 2013. Oklahoman photographer Jim Beckel and I were photographing the historic plaza when we came across a group of photographers shooting with some very expensive, very new-looking equipment, who seemed to be struggling to express what they were seeing. They asked us to make a group photo for them when they told us they’d just taken a class from someone (I don’t remember his name or the name of the class or school.) They all rolled their eyes simultaneously, and one of them said, “He was quite a character!”

I hope no one I am instructing ever refers to me that way.

Finally, I am a firm believer that students who are having fun taking pictures are dramatically more likely to remain engaged, and retain more of the craft we are teaching.

A young photography student named Jennifer takes pictures in my class at the Pontotoc Technology Center a few years ago. I hope I gave her what she needed.
A young photography student named Jennifer takes pictures in my class at the Pontotoc Technology Center a few years ago. I hope I gave her what she needed.

And the Moon Shall Become as Blood

I have a revelation for you: the night of January 20 into the very early parts of January 21, all of North America that has clear weather will be able to see, and photograph, a total lunar eclipse. I hope to photograph it myself, as does my wife Abby.

The moon takes on various shades of amber during the September 2015 total lunar eclipse. The dim, red light is created by sunlight refracting through earth's atmosphere.
The moon takes on various shades of amber during the September 2015 total lunar eclipse. The dim, red light is created by sunlight refracting through earth’s atmosphere.

Here are a few tips and tricks…

  • Longer is better. If you have a telephoto lens, consider that despite its impressive appearance in the sky, the moon is actually quite small, about 0.5 degrees, smaller in apparent size than your fingernail held at arm’s length. To fill up the frame with the moon, you need as much telephoto as you can get. If you have a 300mm, you will probably be disappointed at how small the moon is in the frame. Adding a teleconverter can help, but a cheap teleconverter can rob so much sharpness, the image ends up much worse.

    As formidable as this combination of the Nikkor 400mm f/3.5 and its TC-14 teleconverter looks, it's still not really long enough for photographing objects the size of the sun and moon.
    As formidable as this combination of the Nikkor 400mm f/3.5 and its TC-14 teleconverter looks, it’s still not really long enough for photographing objects the size of the sun and moon.
  • If there is an astronomy club near you, consider joining. You will have shared access to real astronomical telescopes that eclipse (pun intended) photographic lenses.
  • The moon moves surprisingly fast across the sky. Exposures of more that a few seconds will likely result in the moon appearing as an oval blur instead of an amber disc. Larger apertures and higher ISO settings are your friend, but the next level is to put your camera on a telescope with a drive mechanism that tracks objects across the sky, leaving you free to use lower ISOs and longer shutter speeds for maximum sharpness.
  • It’s January. It will probably be cold outside. Bundle up. You’ll probably spend some time standing around waiting unless you’re lucky to live in a dark area…
  • Find a dark area. The full moon is quite bright, but by the time it’s in full eclipse, it might be dim enough that you have trouble locating it; I did a couple of times three years ago. If you are in the city, it might be difficult to get around all the light pollution.
  • Don’t believe the absurd things you hear about eclipses and other stellar phenomena. Eclipses aren’t omens. Mars will never look as big as the moon. Asteroids are not going to crash into the earth. There are no space ships hiding behind comets. The world is not flat… eclipses are obvious proof of that. Before you spread bad memes, learn some good science. And have fun photographing the eclipse next month.
This is an assembled composite from seven images made at 20-minute intervals of the Sunday, Sept. 27, 2015, lunar eclipse.
This is an assembled composite from seven images made at 20-minute intervals of the Sunday, Sept. 27, 2015, lunar eclipse.

Find out when and where to photograph the next lunar eclipse here (link). 

Geotagging, Selfies, Crowds, and the Menace to Nature

I last visited the majestic, awe-inspiring Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado River south of Page, Arizona in 2015. I don't anticipate seeing it again, at least not when it's crowded.
I last visited the majestic, awe-inspiring Horseshoe Bend of the Colorado River south of Page, Arizona in 2015. I don’t anticipate seeing it again, at least not when it’s crowded.

An article on Petapixel recently brought to my attention the fact that due to recent invasions by huge numbers of tourists at an easy-to-access but previously only sparsely visited location, Horseshoe Bend, which I have visited twice, now has a new $750,000 steel railing at the overlook.

My experience with Horseshoe Bend is the same as anyone else's: I was part of a very large number of people trying to enjoy the experience of a very beautiful natural place.
My experience with Horseshoe Bend is the same as anyone else’s: I was part of a very large number of people trying to enjoy the experience of a very beautiful natural place.
Abby and I got married at Arches National Park's beautiful and evocative Delicate Arch, which, fortunately, was not at all crowded on that October morning. This image was made six years later, on a sunny afternoon, packed with visitors.
Abby and I got married at Arches National Park’s beautiful and evocative Delicate Arch, which, fortunately, was not at all crowded on that October morning. This image was made six years later, on a sunny afternoon, packed with visitors.

I’ve been aware for some time that crowds are discovering and choking places that were once only inhabited by a few dedicated naturalists or photographers.

The worst of these, in my opinion, has to be Antelope Canyon, which I saw in 2012, and to which I have no intention of returning. It has been taken over by geotaggers and their phones, and because it is so popular, holds little appeal to me. On that visit, a women in our tour group put away her camera halfway through the tour. When I asked her why, she said, “This isn’t relaxing.”

Geotagging is using the GPS coordinates to mark the location associated with your photos, allowing others to easily find it and visit it.

It is also significant that locations swarming with visitors dilute the value of photos you might make there: sure, you have a nice image, but so do all the hundreds or thousands of people huddled around you. Instead of creating a unique image, you are part of a group of stenographers.

Visitors make pictures at Antelope Canyon in 2012. This is a splendid example of a beautiful natural phenomenon being crassly commercialized.
Visitors make pictures at Antelope Canyon in 2012. This is a splendid example of a beautiful natural phenomenon being crassly commercialized.

Even our beloved Delicate Arch in Utah’s Arches National Park, which I have had the privilege of visiting nine times,  including when  Abby and I got married there in 2004,  may soon have restricted visitation or even require a permit.

Then, to make matters worse...
A pair of artworks by renowned painters Salvador Dali and Francisco Goya were damaged over in Russia after a group of girls posing for selfies accidentally knocked over the structure on which they were being displayed.
While it is true that our National Parks belong to all of us, such privilege also comes with it an implicit mandate of responsibility to protect and respect the natural world. This image was made at Mather Point at Grand Canyon National Park in April 2015.
While it is true that our National Parks belong to all of us, such privilege also comes with it an implicit mandate of responsibility to protect and respect the natural world. This image was made at Mather Point at Grand Canyon National Park in April 2015.

There is a little bit of good news, though: if it takes a fair amount of physical effort, like hiking 10 miles for example, most of the population are too lazy and out of shape to do it.

A friend photographed me on the Joint Trail at Canyonlands in 2016. It is a moderately difficult, moderately long day hike, and unlike features close to roads and cities, we had it nearly to ourselves.
A friend photographed me on the Joint Trail at Canyonlands in 2016. It is a moderately difficult, moderately long day hike, and unlike features close to roads and cities, we had it nearly to ourselves.

So what is the essential cause of this issue, why does it matter, and what can we do? Is this just a symptom of an Earth with 7.7 billion people on it? Do we have the internet to blame? Social trends? The selfish selfie scene?

By their very nature, people are destructive to many of the natural phenomena we hold in high regard, not just by their appearance, but also by their consumption and erosion of natural features. Their footfalls and Twinkie wrappers are far more damaging than their appearance in our images.

A truth to remember, though, is that we all want to create beautiful photographs, we all want to record and preserve our memories, and we all want to show off our experiences. It’s hard to be too critical of tourists and photographers while being one of them.

What can we do to both protect and experience these beautiful places?

  • Visit during off-peak seasons
  • Visit when the weather discourages visitors, like when it’s super-cold
  • Get to the trail head before the sun comes up, and get off the trail before the crowds start to thicken
  • Obey and defend the Leave No Trace paradigm

Despite some locations being “discovered,” there are still wild, unspoiled spots in the world, worthy of our exploration and our respect.

In 2014, I photographer Delicate Arch in Arches National Park on a cold pre-dawn October morning. As a result, I had beautiful, unique light, and was completely alone at an otherwise crowded location.
In 2014, I photographer Delicate Arch in Arches National Park on a cold pre-dawn October morning. As a result, I had beautiful, unique light, and was completely alone at an otherwise crowded location.

30 Years at The Ada News: Evolution and Revolution

Portions of this entry are from my Saturday, Oct. 20, 2018 column in The Ada News.

This was one of the first images I made at The Ada News in October 1988, shot with my Nikon FM2n and my 300mm f/4.5 ED-IF Nikkor at Hayes School. It ended up winning an Oklahoma Press Association award for feature photos.
This was one of the first images I made at The Ada News in October 1988, shot with my Nikon FM2n and my 300mm f/4.5 ED-IF Nikkor at Hayes School. It ended up winning an Oklahoma Press Association award for feature photos.
This is the page-sized process camera in the office directly below mine. It was once served by a dumbwaiter, and was made obsolete by the 1998 addition of an imagesetter.
This is the page-sized process camera in the office directly below mine. It was once served by a dumbwaiter, and was made obsolete by the 1998 addition of an imagesetter.

I started at The Ada Evening News (The Ada News since 2012) October 24, 1988, 30 years ago today. In that time, a lot has changed, mostly for the good. A few notes…

  • In the 1980s and most of the 1990s, all my newspaper photography was on film, most of it black-and-white…
  • Most of those images were printed using a system invented in the 1950s, the Kodak Ektamatic processor, which used activator and stabilizer with papers that had developer incorporated into their emulsions, like Ektamatic SC, which…
  • …was a single-weight, fiber-based photographic paper offering very fast turnaround at the expense of quality and longevity. Although there are literally thousands of Ektamatic prints in within my reach as I write this, none are worth saving.  Additionally, because the prints had only been stabilized, not washed and dried, they smelled like vinegar.
This is the Kodak Ektamatic processor in my darkroom at The Ada Evening News in 1989.
This is the Kodak Ektamatic processor in my darkroom at The Ada Evening News in 1989.
I happen to think the Ada area is home to many great sports traditions, and for me, shooting celebrations and dejections is as important as shooting the action. In this image, Ada softballers Amory Morgan and Taryn Jack celebrate an extra-innings score at the Ada High Softball Complex in 2010.
I happen to think the Ada area is home to many great sports traditions, and for me, shooting celebrations and dejections is as important as shooting the action. In this image, Ada softballers Amory Morgan and Taryn Jack celebrate an extra-innings score at the Ada High Softball Complex in 2010.
  • Sometimes sports photography, like sports itself, comes down to a few critical seconds. In this image from a February 2002 area playoff basketball game at Wilburton, Latta Panther players and fans celebrate a go-ahead score against Haworth with just 1.2 seconds remaining in the contest. Latta won the contest to advance to state.
    Sometimes sports photography, like sports itself, comes down to a few critical seconds. In this image from a February 2002 area playoff basketball game at Wilburton, Latta Panther players and fans celebrate a go-ahead score against Haworth with just 1.2 seconds remaining in the contest. Latta won the contest to advance to state.

    When I first came to The Ada Evening News, we had no capability to reproduce four-color images on our own, and had to send images to an Oklahoma City first to have color separations made, so having a color photo in the paper was relegated to holidays and special events. In 1991, we inherited a primitive color separator (its software was stored on a microcassette), and could then have a color picture on Sunday.

  • A lot of more of my shooting in the film era involved flash photography for the simple reason that we couldn’t change ISO settings like we can today. I would shoot two or three assignments on one roll of film, usually T-Max 400.
  • The digital era began for me in 1998, when my newspaper bought a 35mm film scanner (a Nikon LS-2000) and a computer (an Apple PowerMac G3,) which had a floppy drive, and a Zip® disk drive, but only a CD-ROM, so I was unable to archive scanned images from that era. The editor during that period was too cheap to buy Zip disks for archiving, which was very seriously short-sighted,

    though we still have the negatives on file.

I made this image of Boy Scouts presenting the colors at an Ada Cougars home football game at Norris Field in my first week at The Ada Evening News, in October 1988. It later placed in the Oklahoma Press Association's Photo of the Year contest in the "character study" category.
I made this image of Boy Scouts presenting the colors at an Ada Cougars home football game at Norris Field in my first week at The Ada Evening News, in October 1988. It later placed in the Oklahoma Press Association’s Photo of the Year contest in the “character study” category.
  • Music legend Mae Boren Axton presses her handprints into cement at the McSwain Theater in the 1990s, not long before her death. I am honored to record this kind of history for our community.
    Music legend Mae Boren Axton presses her handprints into cement at the McSwain Theater in the 1990s, not long before her death. I am honored to record this kind of history for our community.

    It was around this time that my newspaper got its first imagesetter, a device that printed the page-sized negatives of newspaper content, replacing the downstairs process camera and fundamentally advancing our layout, design and publishing methods.

  • In 2000, I asked for and received a Minolta medium format film scanner, which I used as often as I could, but which gave poor color scans.
  • My first digital camera was the Nikon D1H, purchased by my newspaper in August 2001. Despite its 2.66 megapixel sensors, the D1H was a great addition to my toolbox, and despite having film cameras and scanners in my bag, digital became increasingly prevalent in my work. My last photographic negatives were made in 2005.
  • By the middle of the 2000s, the scanners we had slid into obsolescence due to their SCSI interfaces, which stopped being supported my modern operating systems. Although I could scan with USB-based flatbed scanners, I was never able to get a true high-resolution film scan again.
  • Since 2007 I have been teaching photography at the Pontotoc Technology Center, and I hope being a news photographer has made me a better teacher, and that teaching has made me a better news photographer.
If you lived in Ada in the spring of 2000, you remember when the mill burned in the middle of the night in downtown Ada, and how it smelled for a month afterwards.
If you lived in Ada in the spring of 2000, you remember when the mill burned in the middle of the night in downtown Ada, and how it smelled for a month afterwards.
  • We sold our press in 2012 or so, and began printing our product at our sister paper, The Norman Transcript, and delivering it by mail. With the departure of our press crew and our carriers, our building became mostly vacant. Portions of it were so poorly cared for that they are probably beyond rehabilitation, and will remain closed off and used as storage.
The Ada Cougars claim a state championship trophy at Owen Field at Oklahoma University in 1994. Since I have been at The Ada News, the Cougars have brought home five football championship trophies.
The Ada Cougars claim a state championship trophy at Owen Field at Oklahoma University in 1994. Since I have been at The Ada News, the Cougars have brought home five football championship trophies.
  • One of the best developments in these three decades has been my relationship with the community. While it’s true that bosses and coworkers have been unkind to me on occasion over the years, the public is overwhelmingly glad to see me, impressed with my work, and regards me as the face of The Ada News.
  • According to a count by a few long-lasting co-workers and me, in my time at our newspaper, there have been eight publishers and 14 managing editors.
Not all news is good, as in this image of a firefighter frustrated that he can't get water to his hose during a snowstorm at the scene of a fatality house fire north of Ada in January 2010.
Not all news is good, as in this image of a firefighter frustrated that he can’t get water to his hose during a snowstorm at the scene of a fatality house fire north of Ada in January 2010.

What’s Missing from Your 4K Camera

A huge selling point for cameras in recent years has been their video capability. This is a result of the megapixel war being over, and manufacturers perceiving the need to sell their products with some magic number. For a while it was “full HD” (high definition) video, but now it’s “4K.”

For those of you who don’t know, 4K doesn’t express resolution the same way “megapixel” is supposed to express resolution in a still camera; it represents the fact that the long dimension of the recorded and projected image is approximately 4000 pixels.

Cue the eager reviewer in Hong Kong or Istanbul or Las Vegas, talking about bit rates and autofocus and color styles and F-log. Cue millennial in skinny jeans and pretentiously-ironic Fedora, leaping from the railing in a parking garage in super-slow-motion, super-high-resolution. The reviewer’s voiceover says something like, “If it weren’t for the better XYZ in the PDQ, I could recommend this camera for it’s striking 4K video.”

What’s missing from all of these reviews? All of them? A script.

Essentially, 99.99% of all 4K video is demo reels that don’t tell any story of any kind. It’s another seriously misplaced priority in the imaging world.

Take the following video as an example: In 1992, I bought some surplus VHS video cassettes at the Ada Public Library. Three of them were called Best of the Fests, which were collections of films from film festivals. On one of those was a 1988 short film called Spartacus Rex. It was the best of the Best of the Fests, and I have been enjoying it and occasionally quoting ever since. It was made by Loch Phillipps and Caroline Skaife. It’s brilliant, not because it’s HD or 4K (I think it was 16mm actually), but because it has a script…

My Ten Dollar Camera Collection

I made this image with an Olympus Camedia C-750 digital camera, which dates back to 2003. I was very happy with the result.
I made this image with an Olympus Camedia C-750 digital camera, which dates back to 2003. I was very happy with the result.

Long-time webizens know that the controversial Ken Rockwell has a lot to say. He is both revered and reviled on the web, but remains popular in any case.

One concept he explored years ago was “futuretrash,” the idea that technology is inherently inclined to advance so fast that almost all tech machinations will be obsolete in a short period of time, like months or just a few years.

The article is ten years old, but it’s just as relevant today, particularly after I half-jokingly got on Ebay and bought 22 untested old digital cameras for just $10. They arrived a couple of days later, and my wife Abby and I have been playing with them ever since.

Here are $5000 worth of digital cameras reduced to a $10 Ebay grab.
Here are $5000 worth of digital cameras reduced to a $10 Ebay grab.

The oldest camera of the bunch appears to be from 1998, a Kodak DC210 Plus. The front of the camera brags “MegaPixel,” and the web confirms that yes, it is a one megapixel camera. The web also indicates that this behemoth originally cost $899. No, I am not making that up; that’s almost $1400 in today’s dollars.

Abby holds the 20-year-old Kodak DC210 Plus digital camera. It actually works.
Abby holds the 20-year-old Kodak DC210 Plus digital camera. It actually works.

Just for the record, one of these cameras, a Nikon Pronea S, is a film camera from the APS era.

The price of digital cameras fell for years, in accordance with Moore’s Law, so by 2008, this camera had been replaced with much better, much cheaper technology. Still, even the newest and best of this batch of untested cameras must have cost at least $300. To get them all for just $10 says this: what was once valuable is now garbage.

About a third of these cameras work. Some of them take AA batteries, while some require proprietary batteries I don’t have. Most of them use the ubiquitous SD card, while a few take CF cards. Two of them take SmartMedia, which I don’ t have, and one requires an SD Picture Card, which was in it when it arrived. A Sony Cybershot had a Memory Stick in it.

But I didn’t buy them to take pictures. I certainly have enough modern cameras for that. I bought them to ponder what we really value in a capitalist/merchentilist society from the perspective of someone in my area of expertise. Are we really asking the human race to throw away college savings, mortgage payments, health care, retirement, and any number of other once truly valuable things so we could take 20 or 30 1.2-megapixel digital photographs of our niece’s graduation?

Flash forward 20 years to now, and the real reason these cameras are in a pile in a box at the bottom of the coat closet is this: we have been brainwashed to believe we need to take tens of thousands of photographs of our lives with increasingly complex and sophisticated tools (iPhones for example), instead of living our lives?

Hawken the Irish Wolfhound was so curious about my woods walk that he got tangled up in a vine alone the south fence.
Hawken the Irish Wolfhound was so curious about my woods walk that he got tangled up in a vine alone the south fence.

Yes, I see this all the time: people watching their children grow up on the screens of their phones. And I can’t be certain, but my guess is that only a tiny fraction of these images and videos are ever seen again.

So, Richard, photographer and photography instructor, what is your bottom line? Quality over quantity? That we should all be artists? That we should turn off our phones and smell the marigolds once in a while? All this and more. Life is worth living instead of watching, and while photography can be a powerful tool for recording our lives, it shouldn’t take the place of our lives.

I made this image of a thistle plant in our pasture last night with the 2005-era Kodak Easyshare Z740. Possibly regarded as inadequate by today's standards of technology, the image is, nevertheless, lovely.
I made this image of a thistle plant in our pasture last night with the 2005-era Kodak Easyshare Z740. Possibly regarded as inadequate by today’s standards of technology, the image is, nevertheless, lovely.

Funniest Repair Ever

This is the Gorilla Glue that squished out when I reattached a thumb grip on my D700.
This is the Gorilla Glue that squished out when I reattached a thumb grip on my D700.

When I bought my D700, it was missing the rubber grip for the right thumb. Some weeks later one of my D200s died, and I stripped it for parts. The thumb grips aren’t the same, so I trimmed it with a scissors and glued it on, and it worked fine.

Ten days ago, though, it came unglued, so I decided to glue it back, only more aggressively than before. I put a fair amount of Gorilla Glue on the spot, pressed the rubber grip into place, and put a book on it to hold it down while it dried. Apparently, the pressure from the weight of the book caused the glue to ooze out at a couple of spots.

I laughed hard when I saw the result. Of course, I can just cut off the extra glue with a razor or sharp knife, but I’m halfway tempted to leave it on and tell people it’s some kind of an accessory, like the glue spots are pressure points or massage balls or something.

Breaking Things Loose and Keeping Things Fresh

Black and white barbed wire: am I creating, or just brooding? Does it matter?
Black and white barbed wire: am I creating, or just brooding? Does it matter?

I talk all the time on this site and on my personal site about creativity.

“If I take one more picture of a leaf, I’m going to explode” ~R. E. in 2015, about a creative rut he experienced.

Lately I’ve been social media friending a lot of photographers at bigger newspapers on the coasts. Their work is amazing and inspirational, but seems to flow from a different source: regattas, refugees, politics, enormous sports events, current affairs; they live in states that have counties bigger than Oklahoma, so it’s a different worldview just based on what we see every day. I look at their lives with some incredulity: how can you deal with millions of people, their noise, their traffic, their smell. I live in a town that has fewer people in it than the staff at the New York Times.

You can piss and pout all day about this not being original or groundbreaking, which it's not. It's an image I love of something I love. Done.
You can piss and pout all day about this not being original or groundbreaking, which it’s not. It’s an image I love of something I love. Done.

I caught a recent YouTube video from a channel called DigitalRev (“Rev” being “revolution” I guess) about photographic cliche’s to avoid. In it, he mentions just about every kind of photo. I’ve touched on this idea before, and it is this: in a world of literally billions of images being made every day, stop trying to reinvent the wheel and start trying to express yourself. It’s a subtle concept, but one worth merit.

Looking at the work of other photographers will make you chase your tail. It’s all been done to death. Don’t believe me? Do a web search for “Hong Kong at Night.” I’ll wait.

See? What can you add to that? Next, do a web search for “YOUR NAME in pictures.” Now, what can you add to that?

Finally, I know I’ve said this time and again, but it bears a lot of weight: you can’t buy mastery, you have to earn it. Trust me on this: when I take my pistol down to the pond and my first ten shots miss, there’s nothing wrong with my pistol.

Sometimes your camera can make you look great, if you're willing to let it. I made this exposure entirely by accident.
Sometimes your camera can make you look great, if you’re willing to let it. I made this exposure entirely by accident.

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The Love of Teaching

My students and I had an excellent session last night.
My students and I had an excellent session last night.
During the golden hour we were able to use this nice edge light.
During the golden hour we were able to use this nice edge light.

As the years have passed, I find that there are few things I love as much as teaching photography.

It’s fun and interesting, and, like last night, full of “ah ha!” moments for all involved.

The team makes pictures under a pear tree.
The team makes pictures under a pear tree.
After the sun dipped below the horizon, we got a very nice, subtle, rounded edge light.
After the sun dipped below the horizon, we got a very nice, subtle, rounded edge light.

Last night we had a great golden hour, followed by an even better blue hour, followed by a fun indoor existing-light session.

We then finished the night with some after-dark light painting with flash and flashlights.

We all had so much fun we actually ran ten minutes long.

My crew takes time to set up under a pear tree. It yielded the best photographic fruits.
My crew takes time to set up under a pear tree. It yielded the best photographic fruits.
As we stayed out during the blue hour, we came across this tree and used it as a compositional element to create strong leading lines. We were very happy with it.
As we stayed out during the blue hour, we came across this tree and used it as a compositional element to create strong leading lines. We were very happy with it.