Fact and Myth: “Full Frame” vs “Cropped”

I recently sold some older gear to get ahold of this Nikon D700. With 94,325 frames through it when I bought it, it is about halfway through it's life expectancy. The D700 is larger and heavier than most of my other cameras, and it is a luxury to look through a film-sized viewfinder.
I recently sold some older gear to get ahold of this Nikon D700. With 94,325 frames through it when I bought it, it is about halfway through it’s life expectancy. The D700 is larger and heavier than most of my other cameras, and it is a luxury to look through a film-sized viewfinder.

For a couple of decades now, a cacophony of myth and misinformation has stemmed from digital photography regarding sensor size. This all started because professional and advanced amateur digital photography was rooted, for economic reasons, in 35mm film photography.

Not only does the Nikon D700 have a bigger sensor, it has a bigger, and much heavier body.
Not only does the Nikon D700 have a bigger sensor, it has a bigger, and much heavier body.

Driven mostly by the engines of sales and popularity, not necessity or creativity or technical superiority, the 35mm film frame, at 36x24mm, and originally derived from an industrious camera maker wanting to take advantage of surplus film from the burgeoning 1930s motion picture industry, became the standard bearer for image size by the end of the 20th century.

I recently decided to do a little used-for-used sell-and-buy on Ebay to get my hands on a Nikon D700, one of Nikon’s earliest digital cameras equipped with a sensor the size of a 35mm film frame, 36x24mm, sometimes referred to by the misleading name “full frame” because it is the same size as a full frame of film. Nikon calls it “FX,” in contrast to their smaller 24x15mm sensors, which it calls “DX.” 24x15mm sensors are often mistakenly called “cropped” sensors by laymen who don’t fully understand the origins of image size. If it has to have a name, it is most accurately described by its size in millimeters or by the film size closest to it, APS-C (Advanced Photo System type-C).

The lazy-writing web world often calls full frame “FF” in forum posts.

  • Do full frame sensors have “better depth of field”? No. I was eager to debunk this one because I already knew the answer, and because it is an embarrassment to photography that everyone is so eager to believe this. Depth of field is controlled by two factors: magnification and aperture. The reason this myth seems to be true is that to get the same composition on a 36x24mm as on a smaller sensor, one has to either get closer or use a longer focal length, both of which increase magnification to create shallower depth of field. At identical distances, focal lengths and apertures, depth of field is identical. If you don’t believe me, here is the proof…
To prevent confirmation bias, I won't say which of these images is made with which sensor size. 50mm @f/1.4, cropped to show the books in the center of the frame. Vs...
To prevent confirmation bias, I won’t say which of these images is made with which sensor size. 50mm @f/1.4, cropped to show the books in the center of the frame. Vs…
... 50mm @f/1.4, cropped to show the books in the center of the frame. Can you tell me which one is which?
… 50mm @f/1.4, cropped to show the books in the center of the frame. Can you tell me which one is which?
  • Is an aperture of f/2 on a larger sensor “equivalent” in light gathering capacity to f/1.4 on a smaller sensor? No. I heard this one asserted by Tony and Chelsea Northrup on their YouTube channel, and I couldn’t believe my ears at the time. (They also refer to “ISO” as a name – “Eyesoh,” which it is not). I have no idea how they came to this conclusion, but this and the popularity of their channel has done nothing but muddy the waters on issues like this. Simply put, f number is a fraction describing the ratio between the focal length of a lens and the diameter of the opening. A 50mm f/2, for example, has an opening of 25mm. 50 divided by 2 equals 25. A specific aperture value lets the same amount of light through the lens regardless of what size of film or sensor is on the other side.

    Nikon badges all of its 36x24mm sensor cameras with this "FX" badge.
    Nikon badges all of its 36x24mm sensor cameras with this “FX” badge.
  • Will a larger sensor give life back to my wide angle lenses? Yes, with some caveats. A 20mm lens that was a mediocre lens on a smaller sensor has now been restored to its film-days glory as an ultra wide lens. While this is certainly nice if you have a bunch of old wide angle lenses, today many manufacturers make very wide angle lenses for smaller sensors. I have several myself, and I am able to get as wide as I need, including ultra-ultra-wide using my 10-17mm fisheye and uncurving it in Photoshop.
I shot this today with my 18-35mm at 18mm on the D700.
I shot this today with my 18-35mm at 18mm on the D700.
I shot this today with my 12-24mm at 12mm on the D300S.
I shot this today with my 12-24mm at 12mm on the D300S.
  • Will my telephoto lenses will be less telephoto-y on a larger sensor? Yes. This is the reason sports and wildlife photographers got away from large and medium format film as soon as 35mm was available: just as larger sensors make wide angles wider, they make telephotos wider, since they are projecting their images onto a larger surface. Many top sports and bird photographers very much prefer 24x15mm sensors for just this reason, and this has been a leading marketing tag for Nikon’s flagship 24x15mm camera, the D500.
These are some of the wide angle lenses my office and I own that will see the light of day more now that I have a 36x24mm sensor. From left to right are the AF-S Nikkor 28-70mm f/2.8, the AF Nikkor 20mm, the AF Nikkor 18-35mm f/3.5-4.5, the AF Nikkor 28mm f/2.8, and the Sigma AF 15-30mm f/3.5-4.5.
These are some of the wide angle lenses my office and I own that will see the light of day more now that I have a 36x24mm sensor. From left to right are the AF-S Nikkor 28-70mm f/2.8, the AF Nikkor 20mm, the AF Nikkor 18-35mm f/3.5-4.5, the AF Nikkor 28mm f/2.8, and the Sigma AF 15-30mm f/3.5-4.5.
  • Are larger sensors better at capturing low-light scenes due to the pixels themselves being larger? Yes. If you compare a 36x24mm sensor against a 24x15mm sensor of the same pixel count, assuming the sensors are of the same era and treated with the same renderings, noise will be lower in the larger sensor. This is true because the pixels themselves, the tiny light-sensing devices inside the integrated circuit in the middle of the camera, are larger, and can gather more light, thus requiring less amplification of the signals they produce. In practice, though, this rule doesn’t hold much water. There are many smaller-sensor cameras that make incredibly low-noise images, and most cameras with larger than “full frame” sensors do not.
Though quite rare, I was able to spot this Nikon D700 "street photographer" on the Plaza in Santa Fe, one place you would expect to see a jillion street photographers. Of note is the not-very-good lens he has mounted on it.
Though quite rare, I was able to spot this Nikon D700 “street photographer” on the Plaza in Santa Fe, one place you would expect to see a jillion street photographers. Of note is the not-very-good lens he has mounted on it.

The craving for lower noise at higher ISOs is a symptom of photographers being too lazy to master what matters most, light. Additionally, there is a lot of pretense on the photo forums (like photo.net, which recently changed formats and is now unviewable) about, “wanting to do more street photography.” The truth is that most of time people who make this claim just want to be able to say, “I have this camera and that lens,” and don’t make very many photos. All you have to do to discover this truth is walk the streets and count the photographers: ≈ 0.

  • Are “multiplier” or “crop factor” numbers useful? No. These numbers are all over the place, and only exist so camera makers can muddy the waters of what you should buy. 1.5x “crop factor” or 2x “multiplier” is only helpful if you go from one format to the other constantly while shooting. A far better way to understand this is to know your camera, and know what does what. For example, suppose your camera is a “four thirds” format (18x13mm). A 14mm is a wide angle lens, and a 200mm is a super-telephoto.
  • Is it worth it to “upgrade” to a larger sensor? No. Anyone who asks this question isn’t ready to take advantage of the subtle differences offered by a larger sensor, and larger sensors are disproportionally more expensive. If you need a larger sensor, you already know it.
You can see from the brassing and smoothing of the working surfaces of my "new" used Nikon D700 that it's been put to work. This is how I prefer to buy cameras, since I am going to wear them out myself in short order.
You can see from the brassing and smoothing of the working surfaces of my “new” used Nikon D700 that it’s been put to work. This is how I prefer to buy cameras, since I am going to wear them out myself in short order.
0

Strengths and Weaknesses: the Nikon D80

The Nikon D80 is a fairly straightforward camera - not fancy, but capable of delivering great images.
The Nikon D80 is a fairly straightforward camera – not fancy, but capable of delivering great images.
The badge on the left front of the D80 is smart-looking.
The badge on the left front of the D80 is smart-looking.

People on the street, and students in my class, sometimes tell me their ten year old camera has died, and ask if it would be worth getting it repaired. The answer is usually no, because so many cameras that fetched top-dollar when they were new are no longer worth much on the resale market, yet would be very expensive to repair.

In smaller hands like my wife's, and especially with smaller lenses, the D80 is nicely compact and lightweight.
In smaller hands like my wife’s, and especially with smaller lenses, the D80 is nicely compact and lightweight.
In addition to the standard PASM options, the exposure mode dial on the Nikon D80 features the amateur "green box" all-auto mode, as well as several not-very-effective "scene"modes.
In addition to the standard PASM options, the exposure mode dial on the Nikon D80 features the amateur “green box” all-auto mode, as well as several not-very-effective “scene”modes.

Almost all the cameras on the street are in the “amateur” or “advanced amateur” class, a group of photographic tools that have gotten much more affordable over the years. That leaves us with two options: replace the camera that originally cost $1200 (like my wife Abby’s 2005-era Nikon D70S) with a much better one in the $400-$600 range (like the Canon EOS Rebel T5 with its kit lens for just $399), or poke around Ebay or Craigslist or pawn shops for a used version of our dead camera.

The D80 only takes one card, and the door for it is small. On one of my D80s, the slot is now sticky, and it's hard to eject the card.
The D80 only takes one card, and the door for it is small. On one of my D80s, the slot is now sticky, and it’s hard to eject the card.
If you have older AF Nikkor lenses, the D80 will autofocus them, thanks to the inclusion of an in-camera focus motor, which drives this little linkage that resembles the tip of a screwdriver on the lens mount.
If you have older AF Nikkor lenses, the D80 will autofocus them, thanks to the inclusion of an in-camera focus motor, which drives this little linkage that resembles the tip of a screwdriver on the lens mount.

An excellent example of this is the Nikon D80. When it first appeared on the market 10 years ago, this camera retailed for $1000, but today even the cleanest ones on Ebay are never more than about $180. For me, this is exactly the kind of bargain that allows us to use and enjoy perfectly good technology, that once fetched big money, at nearly giveaway prices.

The control cluster on the top right of the Nikon D80 has a good-sized LCD readout and buttons that will be familiar to most Nikon users.
The control cluster on the top right of the Nikon D80 has a good-sized LCD readout and buttons that will be familiar to most Nikon users.

I have a couple of D80s, both bought used, that deliver amazing image quality, image quality that is honestly very hard to beat. It takes a lot of photographer and a lot of necessity to generate a situation in which older, used cameras can’t deliver great pictures.

I have a 13x19 inch print of this image of Arizona's Antelope Canyon hanging in my office. Made with the 2006-era technology of Nikon's D80, the image quality, even printed this big, is astonishing.
I have a 13×19 inch print of this image of Arizona’s Antelope Canyon hanging in my office. Made with the 2006-era technology of Nikon’s D80, the image quality, even printed this big, is astonishing.
I've shot a few weddings with the D80, and the client was always happy with the result.
I’ve shot a few weddings with the D80, and the client was always happy with the result.

I’ve said this before, as have others, but it bears asserting again: you don’t need to upgrade your camera. You need to wear it out.

The Nikon D80’s strengths are…

  • Lightweight and unobtrusive
  • Easy to use, well-place controls
  • Will autofocus older AF Nikkor lenses as well as newer AF-S lenses
  • Decently large LCD display on the top of the camera which is missing on all of Nikon’s D3xxx and 5xxx intro-level cameras
  • Delivers sharp, clean 10 megapixel images at low and medium ISO settings
  • Very affordable in the 2017 market

The D80’s weaknesses are…

  • Slowish frame rate of 3 frames per second, which is too slow for sports
  • Noisy images at higher ISO settings
  • A little small for full-sized hands
  • Plastic construction makes it a bit fragile
  • Exposure control dial doesn’t have a lock and is easily moved to another setting
  • Exposure mode dial is filled with useless amateur “scene mode” options

If you are thinking about picking up a D80 is a pawn shop or from the web, and the price is right, make your move. This camera will make good pictures.

The top of the Nikon D80 is good-looking and has controls where they are needed.
The top of the Nikon D80 is good-looking and has controls where they are needed.
0

The Gift of Aperture

Someone asked me the other day which shooting mode I use most, and I told them 90% of the time I shoot in Aperture Priority.
Someone asked me the other day which shooting mode I use most, and I told them 90% of the time I shoot in Aperture Priority.

It’s Christmas time again, and with it we photographers find ourselves photographing something very pure to our imaging instincts: Christmas lights. Beautiful and dazzling to the eyes, we love photographing them for several reasons. They are everywhere, they are fun to shoot, and they summon the children inside us who looked on them with amazement all those years ago.

I think about this as I photograph lights for a living, and last night as I photographed the Christmas tree and lights at home. I did a fun little experiment that illustrates the value of mastering aperture: shooting the same scene at apertures through the entire range. It is powerfully illustrative of the effects of aperture…

Christmas Lights on the Front Porch, f/1.8.
Christmas Lights on the Front Porch, f/1.8.
Christmas Lights on the Front Porch, f/2.8.
Christmas Lights on the Front Porch, f/2.8.
Christmas Lights on the Front Porch, f/22.
Christmas Lights on the Front Porch, f/22.

Made with my 50mm f/1.8 lens, one of the best and most affordable lenses in anyone’s bag, these three images are identical except for aperture, which, as you can see, makes a huge difference. Wide open, the out-of-focus highlights are round, at f/2.8, they take on the heptagonal shape of the aperture blades, and at f/22, each bright point of light takes on the classic “sunstar” look.

All three of these unique looks has a place in our photography, and all are right there at our fingertips.

1+

Why Format?

A friend on social media recently sent me a private message saying he had trouble with a storage media card. He asked which brands and types I use, and if I ever had any trouble with them. I told him without hesitation that I very rarely have storage media problems, and if I do, it always shows up in a step everyone should do every time they insert a card into a camera: formatting your storage media card.

Formatting is accomplished in as many different ways as there are cameras, but the concept is simple: format your card every time you insert it into your camera.
Formatting is accomplished in as many different ways as there are cameras, but the concept is simple: format your card every time you insert it into your camera.

The idea is simple. Have the computer inside the camera “reset” the card, creating what computerists call a file allocation table (FAT) exactly the way  the camera needs it.

The camera creates the data (folders, tables, markers, etc.) that meets its needs, and marks your card as empty. It also checks for any errors (“bad sectors”) on the card, and if there is a problem, it will let you know then, before it’s time to shoot.

Your card then behaves as if it was brand new.

This also has a very significant benefit of forcing the photographer to establish the workflow of saving their files to a computer instead of storing them in-camera, since formatting a card will erase all the images on it. I’ve known many photographers over the years who can’t find their photos because they are buried among thousands of other photos somewhere on their cards in their cameras. I’ve also known many students and fellow photographers who are ready to shoot except the instant they trip the shutter, they see the “Card Full” massage.

But errant technology management isn’t new or at all uncommon. I find a surprising number of students have their cameras set to medium or small file size. I’m not even sure why – their cameras don’t arrive that way, and they haven’t changed much else. Maybe someone told them they could cram more photos onto their cards that way, which is true, but sadly, they have changed one of the few menu items in their cameras that can completely destroy their images.

Put simply, when you change the size of the image in your camera, you are telling it to throw away pixels, pixels you bought. Never, ever change the file size in your camera.

If you shoot JPEG files, you will see this dialog somewhere in the menu system of your camera. Leave it set to "Large" or "Maximum." When you shoot RAW files, which I recommend, this menu item is disabled, and the camera gives you all the available pixels.
If you shoot JPEG files, you will see this dialog somewhere in the menu system of your camera. Leave it set to “Large” or “Maximum.” When you shoot RAW files, which I recommend, this menu item is disabled, and the camera gives you all the available pixels.
1+

Sensory Perception

At the heart of every digital camera is one of these: an integrated circuit with tiny picture elements - "pixels" - that record light. Most have filters like anti-aliasing and infrared filters, and most have a Bayer Pattern Array filter. This is the modern equivalent of film.
At the heart of every digital camera is one of these: an integrated circuit with tiny picture elements – “pixels” – that record light. Most have filters like anti-aliasing and infrared filters, and most have a Bayer Pattern Array filter. This is the modern equivalent of film.

Yesterday afternoon after a brief electrical power interruption, I noticed that house wasn’t staying cool. I checked and found that the compressor and its fan outside the house were not running. A new compressor would be very expensive, and was not happy about it.

To help distract myself, I mowed and weed-whacked for a while, then when it got dark, I set out to complete a pointless but interesting (thus maybe not entirely pointless) task of taking apart a couple of long-dead digital cameras, a Nikon D100 and a Kodak DCS760.

This is the sensor board from the Kodak DCS760. That's not my handwriting, so I don't know if it was marked this way from the factory or by someone who repaired it at some point.
This is the sensor board from the Kodak DCS760. That’s not my handwriting, so I don’t know if it was marked this way from the factory or by someone who repaired it at some point.
Just a few steps into dismantling this camera already makes it look like a skeleton.
Just a few steps into dismantling this camera already makes it look like a skeleton.

I got both years ago on eBay for a small fraction of their retail price, shot several years of images with them, then stuck them in a box in anticipation of a day like today. Both cameras date from the early 2000s, when digital photography was still evolving by leaps and bounds.

Despite both cameras being rendered hopelessly outdated by the “futuretrash” paradigm, each made some amazing pictures in my hands.

This isn’t a step-by-step tutorial about how to tear these things down, but a look at what’s inside these two cameras, with a few observations about how they were put together.

I only had to remove about ten screws to get the back off the DCS760.
I only had to remove about ten screws to get the back off the DCS760.
The grip handle on the right side of the D100 holds this large flash capacitor.
The grip handle on the right side of the D100 holds this large flash capacitor.
  • The DCS760 was put together as what we used to call a “Frankencamera,” meaning it was two distinct things, a film camera and a digital sensor, stitched together clumsily.
  • The D100 seemed to be more elegantly designed, as though it was designed from the start as a digital.
  • Both seemed like a miracle of science when compared to cameras from the beginning of my career when I honestly had no idea this kind of technology would come along.
  • Both cameras had a lot of electronic bulk that I expect I would not see in newer cameras with more advanced design and assembly techniques.
  • Both cameras were sturdy, and put up a fight when I tried to get inside. I don’t envy anyone ever tasked with repairing them.
The "Frankencamera" aspect of the DCS760 is abundantly clear in this view showing empty space where a film cassette, on the left, and the space for film to wind, on the right, are empty.
The “Frankencamera” aspect of the DCS760 is abundantly clear in this view showing empty space where a film cassette, on the left, and the space for film to wind, on the right, are empty.
You can see many bulky capacitors and other circuits on the bottom of the D100.
You can see many bulky capacitors and other circuits on the bottom of the D100.
This image shows three sizes of image sensor. On the left is the Minolta DiMage 7i at 5mm x 7mm, in the middle is the Kodak DSC760 sensor at 28mm x 19mm, and on the right it Nikon's D100 sensor, which measures 24mm x 15mm. All three sensors deliver approximately six million pixels.
This image shows three sizes of image sensor. On the left is the Minolta DiMage 7i at 5mm x 7mm, in the middle is the Kodak DSC760 sensor at 28mm x 19mm, and on the right it Nikon’s D100 sensor, which measures 24mm x 15mm. All three sensors deliver approximately six million pixels.
0

Point and Watch

I photographed this cicada on the fence in our front yard this morning with the Fujifilm AX-655.
I photographed this cicada on the fence in our front yard this morning with the Fujifilm AX-655.

I recently inherited an orphaned Fujifilm point-and-shoot camera from the dusty drawers of my newsroom. A previous editor bought it last September without consulting me, just prior to the company issuing everyone in news, sports and photography (me) a new iPhone 6S. Now everyone in the building shoots with their phones (even me, sometimes), so there was no reason at all to buy this camera. EXIF data shows that fewer than 300 images were made with this camera. I imagine this kind of oddly wasteful spending happens at every business on the planet.

My Olympus FE-5020 is the best point-and-shoot camera I've ever owned, because it has a sharp lens capable of a very effective wide angle of view.
My Olympus FE-5020 is the best point-and-shoot camera I’ve ever owned, because it has a sharp lens capable of a very effective wide angle of view.

So I’ve been carrying this thing around for a few days, thinking I’ll use it. The point-and-shoot vs the smartphone contest isn’t quite settled yet, despite the overwhelming prevalence of smartphones. The point-and-shoot camera’s trump cards are its more intuitive and available controls, and real optical zoom lenses. A less but still real consideration is how shooting pictures with your phone, particularly in groups, makes you look like a trend-follower, and the most disturbing trend is seeing people making smartphone images of their lives instead of experiencing their lives firsthand. In some ways, it’s like watching your children grow up on a television screen.

I’ve made one or two images for my newspaper with this camera, the Fujifilm Finepix AX-665. There’s nothing special about the camera, and I’m actually glad about that, since I find it frustrating that controls on digital cameras have constantly been repositioned by engineers, often ending up back where they started, to stimulate interest and sales instead of serving the real needs of photographers.

The AX-665 has the welcome four-way selector under the right thumb, and the equally welcome zoom rocker just above it, so I don’t have to hunt for them. The lens is sharp and focuses close (though not true-macro close), but the zoom range only covers the blandest coverage angles. It’s easy to understand how smartphones are taking market share from these cameras, given their zoom ranges. That’s why I like my Olympus point-and-shoot so much better: it has a nice wide angle at the short end of the zoom, wider than any smartphone.

For me, the bottom line is, despite the shortcomings of one machine of photography vs the other, is this: every camera is a tool in the toolbox of photography, and the most important thing you can do with it is express yourself.

This is the orphaned Fuji Finepix AX-655 that has fallen into my hands. I hope to have some fun making great pictures with it.
This is the orphaned Fuji Finepix AX-655 that has fallen into my hands. I hope to have some fun making great pictures with it.
1+

What to Carry When Your Phone Isn’t Enough…

… but your cameras are too much.

Abby leans out the passenger-side window of her truck to take pictures of a brooding thunderstorm near Groom, Texas on our last vacation, with her Fujifilm HS30EXR.
Abby leans out the passenger-side window of her truck to take pictures of a brooding thunderstorm near Groom, Texas on our last vacation, with her Fujifilm HS30EXR.
In addition to making great video and very cool fisheye-angle stills, my Ion AirPro3 is waterproof to 50 meters.
In addition to making great video and very cool fisheye-angle stills, my Ion AirPro3 is waterproof to 50 meters.

Readers might recall from our travel blog that my wife Abby and I just returned from a New Mexico getaway. Fewer readers might be aware that despite being professional photographers with access to a fair amount of heavy pro gear, neither Abby nor I bring any of that.

For years now, Abby and I have embraced a doctrine of traveling light. Our goal is to have fun, and the less we can carry, the better. Whether for hiking and camping, or, like on our most recent trip, driving around exploring northern New Mexico, we have settled into having our matching Fujifilm HS30EXRs as our main cameras, with occasional help from my Ion AirPro3 action cam, my tiny but very apt Olympus FE-5020, and very occasionally, our iPhones.

Nothing about your gear is as important as your willingness to make pictures even in adverse conditions, like this New Mexico rainbow I shot in a blowing rain. You can ever see raindrops on the lens, but the message of the beauty of the moment is still conveyed.
Nothing about your gear is as important as your willingness to make pictures even in adverse conditions, like this New Mexico rainbow I shot in a blowing rain. You can ever see raindrops on the lens, but the message of the beauty of the moment is still conveyed.
The Olympus FE-5020 is smaller and lighter than a smartphone, and has a much better lens.
The Olympus FE-5020 is smaller and lighter than a smartphone, and has a much better lens.

Why would I go to a point-and-shoot like the Olympus instead of my iPhone? Quick answer: the lens. A dirty little secret of the camera phone scene is that the “zoom” doesn’t actually “zoom” at all, but simply crops the existing image. The Olympus has an excellent 4.3-21.5mm lens equivalent to 24-120mm (in 35mm film terms) that no phone can touch.

Also, aside from making action movies, why bring an action cam? Quick answer: the lens. My Ion’s lens sees 170º, and is the equivalent to a fisheye lens.

This image was made with my Ion AirPro3's still-frame function, shot with the camera clipped to the driver's-side visor. As you can see, the view is super-wide.
This image was made with my Ion AirPro3’s still-frame function, shot with the camera clipped to the driver’s-side visor. As you can see, the view is super-wide.

Our Fuji cameras are equipped with non-removable 4.2-126mm lenses equivalent to 24-720mm in film terms, allowing me to explore scenes like a sunset we shot near Santa Fe on our first travel day…

This is the wide view of a beautiful New Mexico sunset. Compare it to the next frame, made with the same camera just a second or two later...
This is the wide view of a beautiful New Mexico sunset. Compare it to the next frame, made with the same camera just a second or two later…
The sun touches the edge of the mountains in this super-telephoto view made with the Fujifilm HS30EXR.
The sun touches the edge of the mountains in this super-telephoto view made with the Fujifilm HS30EXR.
At the end of the day, I empty my pockets and dump everything on the motel night stand: it's all small and none of it gets in the way.
At the end of the day, I empty my pockets and dump everything on the motel night stand: it’s all small and none of it gets in the way.

Our Fuji cameras are no longer made, but Fuji’s current line of Finepix cameras is similar. Nikon makes a line they call their “premium compact” cameras. Canon makes Powershot cameras that are in this class.

Abby and I always travel with our dogs, and between checking in at motels, letting the dogs do their business at rest stops, bringing luggage here and there, and handling all our affairs, it makes a big difference having small, lightweight cameras. We also carry our smallest laptop computer (a Macbook Air), our smallest concealed carry sidearms (her Kel-Tec P32 and my Ruger LCP) and our smallest, most compact luggage. Fun is our goal, and with this philosophy, we always have it.

In addition to being fun, lightweight and easy to carry, gems like our matching HS30EXR cameras make great images.
In addition to being fun, lightweight and easy to carry, gems like our matching HS30EXR cameras make great images.
0

Down the Infraroad

My Sony F828 camera makes an exposure through a 720nm infrared filter yesterday.
My Sony F828 camera makes an exposure through a 720nm infrared filter yesterday.

Four years ago I posted a piece about experimenting with infrared imaging, making photographs with visible light filtered out to some degree. The camera I used at the time was the bulky, heavy, cumbersome Kodak DCS720x, which I selected because it has a removable infrared filter, which, when removed, allowed infrared energy through to the sensor.

That camera, though, is a dinosaur, and while I was getting to know its infrared abilities, I simply never brought it anywhere.

I made this far-infrared image at Oral Roberts University in Tulsa a few years ago, and was intrigued by the result, but not as happy with the camera, the heavy, cumbersome Kodak DCS720x.
I made this far-infrared image at Oral Roberts University in Tulsa a few years ago, and was intrigued by the result, but not as happy with the camera, the heavy, cumbersome Kodak DCS720x.

With my infrared experiments at a standstill, I was searching for something else not long ago and came across a YouTube video of a photographer who showed us how to make infrared images with the Sony Cybershop F828, using a magnet to move the IR-blocking filter out of the optical path. I was interested.

I grabbed my F828, which I bought on eBay for $50, a tripod, and my 720nm filter, and set out to see if this camera might be the one to deliver. I played around with it for a few minutes, making a few images from the front porch. Unlike the Kodak, the Sony is a live view camera, so I could actually see an image in the viewfinder.

I’ll let my readers decide if the result is interesting.

This is the result of yesterday's quick infrared experiment. It only required a few simple steps in Photoshop to make it visually interesting.
This is the result of yesterday’s quick infrared experiment. It only required a few simple steps in Photoshop to make it visually interesting.
0

Game Night in the Small Town

This is my iON action camera mounted on the hot shoe of one of the two cameras I used to shoot Latta at Vanoss basketball Saturday night.
This is my iON action camera mounted on the hot shoe of one of the two cameras I used to shoot Latta at Vanoss basketball Saturday night.

My readers know that as a small town news photographer, I cover a lot of, well, small town stuff. One thing I have always loved is small town sports, and how the whole town comes out to the games and has a great time. Saturday, I worked a basketball twin bill, girls and boys basketball at Vanoss High School, who was hosting nearby rival Latta.

I felt inspired for some reason to bring my iON action cam and mount it on the hot shoe of my cameras and made a short video of game night…

 

The girls on the Vanoss bench celebrate a fourth-quarter score Saturday night.
The girls on the Vanoss bench celebrate a fourth-quarter score Saturday night.
0

Picking a Camera for Kodak Moments

At my wife's family reunion last weekend, I made a number of images like this one. Do you think that in 15 years when these kids are showing these photos to their kids that anyone will say "that was shot with the new iPhone 6" or "this was made with a 24 megapixel sensor"?
At my wife’s family reunion last weekend, I made a number of images like this one. Do you think that in 15 years when these kids are showing these photos to their kids that anyone will say “that was shot with the new iPhone 6” or “this was made with a 24 megapixel sensor”?

It is often temping to try to quantify our lives. In a world of chaos and the unknown, it is comforting to remember that 2+2=4, and imagine that our existences make that kind of straightforward sense.

Brothers Darrel and Daniel horse around; this is the kind of moment you can never pose.
Brothers Darrel and Daniel horse around; this is the kind of moment you can never pose.

I have written on a number of occasions about the value of intimacy in photography, and I have also talked about the idea that many people buy and talk about photographic equipment much more than they actually use that equipment to make pictures, or if they do make pictures, they are emotionally dead and technically perfect, or are simply aimed at proving a technical point. Super-sharp pictures of cat whiskers come to mind.

But why is it so hard to make intimacy at the center of photography?

Computers, pixel counts, sharpness charts, noise ratings, buffer sizes, and so on are concrete and specific, and most importantly, are not intimate. It’s easy enough to master noise reduction software and defragging hard drives, but it’s not as easy to find genuinely intimate moments, and even harder still to photograph them.

One serious problem with photographing human moments, as I have discussed before, is that the camera itself can interfere with moments, causing people to lock up and pose. It’s difficult to keep that from dominating your imaging, but it can be done. The world is full of emotionally empty images, particularly in the age of the ubiquitous “selfie.”

I’ll tell you who cares about noise, sensor size and bokeh: computer geeks and other photographers.

Abby made this image of Paul and Heather playing with some kittens, using the Fuji HS30EXR.
Abby made this image of Paul and Heather playing with some kittens, using the Fuji HS30EXR.
The Fujifilm HS30EXR is small and light, and makes it easy to capture the fun.
The Fujifilm HS30EXR is small and light, and makes it easy to capture the fun.

I thought about these ideas last weekend at my wife’s family’s annual reunion. Abby and I have been making pictures at this event since we got married 11 years ago. In all that time, we have made a priority out of capturing genuine, intimate moments. As the years have flown by, we’ve used a variety of cameras, but the actual camera has never made all that much difference. The only thing that really matters is that we are comfortable using it, and that we are comfortable not using it when we want to be part of the action.

In the last three years, Abby and I have gotten very comfortable with the Fujifilm HS30EXR, a small, lightweight “crossover” camera that never gets in the way of taking pictures or getting in them. This year’s reunion was no different; we both had a great time and made great images, never worrying about frame rates, noise factors or sensor size. We freely handed our cameras to other family members, who were instantly comfortable using them in both the “viewfinder mode,” like a DSLR, or in “monitor mode,” like when shooting with a smartphone, since the camera automatically switches between the two modes using a small sensor on the eyepiece.

I handed my camera to Abby's niece Amber, who knows nothing about photography, and she had no trouble at all making this image of Darrel harassing me, my stepdaughter Chele, and Ryan, as we teamed up for the hexapede game.
I handed my camera to Abby’s niece Amber, who knows nothing about photography, and she had no trouble at all making this image of Darrel harassing me, my stepdaughter Chele, and Ryan, as we teamed up for the hexapede game.

The Fuji might not be the camera for you, but consider that the best camera for you might be the one that gets out of the way and lets you and your subject have fun.

In the end, as the years go by and Abby and I capture more and more of these great memories, no one will ever ask which camera we used, and no one will talk about shutter speed or aperture. They will take about the great times we all had, and recorded, of those people we loved, and the ones who are no longer with us, but who were with us over the years, in our memories and our images.

The best thing about this image isn't the shutter speed or the white balance. The best thing is the smiles on their faces.
The best thing about this image isn’t the shutter speed or the white balance. The best thing is the smiles on their faces.
0

The Nikon D300S at 7500 Exposures

Your host shoots a college football game with the Nikon D300S and the AF Nikkor 300mm f/2.8 ED-IF.
Your host shoots a college football game with the Nikon D300S and the AF Nikkor 300mm f/2.8 ED-IF.

My newspaper bought a Nikon D300S digital SLR for me in June. I posted a first look at the camera and made some initial observations. Here, then, are my impressions of the camera after its first 7500 frames.

Clean images at ISOs in the 800-1600 range have breathed new life into my AF Nikkor 70-300mm f/4-5.6.
Clean images at ISOs in the 800-1600 range have breathed new life into my AF Nikkor 70-300mm f/4-5.6.
  • The autofocus is fast, but isn’t as well buffered as I like, and has a tendency to bite on the background instead of the subject. Tweaking and patience has made it work.
  • Despite the promise of 8 frames per second with the bigger EN-EL4 battery, I suspect it barely runs at 7 fps.
  • The buffer with RAW files is just 12 frames, and while it flushes files quickly to the class 10 SD card, the buffer is still not quite big enough for sports, particularly baseball.
  • Image quality in the ISO stratosphere is pretty good; I’ve shot football at ISO 4000 and the result has been decently clean.
  • Cleaner medium ISOs in the 800-1600 range have breathed new life into an old lens, my 70-300mm f/4-5.6 ED. Since this lens needs to be stopped down to f/6.3 to be sharp at 300mm, higher ISOs save the day for softball and baseball action. My 300mm f/4 ED AF is a great lens, but the 70-300mm is three times lighter, and more versatile.
  • The D300S is lighter than my older D2H, but not any smaller. Larger cameras are fine for my hands, but the lighter body is definitely appreciated.

7500 frames in two months equals 45,000 frames in a year, but that’s only my primary camera, and June and July are our slowest months. If you add to that what I shoot with other cameras (I always shoot with two, sometimes three), the total might be about 100,000 frames a year, which doesn’t surprise me.

In conclusion, the Nikon D300S is an excellent addition to my photographic toolbox.

The Nikon D300S is pictured here with the MB-D10 vertical grip, with the EN-EL4 battery installed.
The Nikon D300S is pictured here with the MB-D10 vertical grip, with the EN-EL4 battery installed.
0

Hearts and Bones

Putting our heads together: Ada City Schools teacher and part time photographer Jeanie Neal and I simultaneously shoot pictures of the coaches at Ada High School's media day Saturday. She and I made a game of it to see if we could trip our shutters at exactly the same moment.
Putting our heads together: Ada City Schools teacher and part time photographer Jeanie Neal and I simultaneously shoot pictures of the coaches at Ada High School’s media day Saturday. She and I made a game of it to see if we could trip our shutters at exactly the same moment.

It’s mid August, and our newspaper is doing what all newspapers do this time of year: working on our football preview section. It’s a pretty big deal in our community, since the schools in our coverage area have long and storied Friday Night Lights histories.

One thing we do for the football preview is what we call “media day.” Parents, teachers and students know it as picture day or photo day, and it involves getting the entire football team for each school dressed out and lined up for a group photo, head shots, senior photos, coach groups, and feature images. Honestly, it doesn’t challenge me photographically, but I understand its importance to my newspaper and our community.

We cover seven high schools and a college, so I probably photograph close to 400 kids each year. In the film days, that meant shooting a lot of film, and souping and printing it all, but these days, digital has powerfully streamlined the process. Also in the film era, I shot these media days using two cameras and a camera bag with loads of film in it; big, heavy cameras and lenses. I was younger then. I am 52 now, and every chance I get, I lighten my load. My neck, shoulders and back are telling me more than ever to take care of them.

My go-to camera/lens combo for media days is a Nikon D80 with an 18-55mm “kit” lens. It is smaller and lighter than anything else I have, and still gives me the color and sharpness I need. The lens isn’t exactly a performer, but I don’t really demand much of it, since these media days are in bright daylight.

I guess if you added up around 400 kids by 27 seasons, you get 10,000 or more players. That’s a lot of kids. The work of photographing them can seem mundane and tiresome at times, but I am happy to do it when I remind myself that I am making memories and recording history.

The Nikon D80 and the ubiquitous 18-55mm "kit" lens is a small, lightweight solution to shooting our area football media day photos.
The Nikon D80 and the ubiquitous 18-55mm “kit” lens is a small, lightweight solution to shooting our area football media day photos.
0

Droning On

An unmanned aerial vehicle, or "drone", hovers above an event I covered recently.
An unmanned aerial vehicle, or “drone”, hovers above an event I covered recently.

I am a naturalist. Nature, I believe, is our best friend and the most important thing in our lives. Without nature we are, literally, nothing.

Abby and I hike and make pictures on the Primitive Loop at Arches National Park the morning after we got married there. At the core of our activities in natural places, including our wedding, is a sense of awe and respect for our natural surroundings.
Abby and I hike and make pictures on the Primitive Loop at Arches National Park the morning after we got married there. At the core of our activities in natural places, including our wedding, is a sense of awe and respect for our natural surroundings.
The first time I visited Delicate Arch, in November 2002, there were few hikers. In the years that followed, crowds have increased, and recently I find the experience less pleasant as a result.
The first time I visited Delicate Arch, in November 2002, there were few hikers. In the years that followed, crowds have increased, and recently I find the experience less pleasant as a result.

The day after Abby and I got married at the majestic Delicate Arch at Arches National Park, Utah, we hiked with some friends on a nice trail at Arches called the Primitive Loop. Although the day started cold and windy, by noon it was a magnificent October day in southern Utah. Near the end of the loop trail, Abby knelt down to photograph a small purple flower growing in the sand next to the trail. Another member of our party blundered up and pulled it out of the ground and asked, “What’s this?” After seeing the shock and anger on Abby’s face, he stuffed it back into the ground, but of course, by then it was done: you can’t “unkill” a flower.

I tell you this because a friend of ours surprised and dismayed us recently by carrying his unmanned aerial vehicle, or “drone,” to Delicate Arch, and once there launched it and flew it around for a bit to make video.

It can be pretty upsetting, honestly, when people are openly disrespectful of others and of nature because they think something is cool, or worse, when they don’t care if something is disruptive because they think it will make them money or fame. Add to that the fact that beautiful sites like Delicate Arch are under attack by their discovery by the public; there are far more visitors to the Arch today than even the first time I saw it in 2002. This creates “The Grand Canyon Effect,” in which the number of visitors reaches a critical mass and renders the experience cheap and touristy. In that circumstance, the last thing I want to see is your stupid buzzing drone making more noise and spoiling the view even more than it already is.

Like not being able to unkill the flower, you can’t unruin someone’s natural experience.

Throngs of tourists gather at Delicate Arch in October 2009. With this many people on hand to share the experience, it's important to remember that we all share this wonderful place.
Throngs of tourists gather at Delicate Arch in October 2009. With this many people on hand to share the experience, it’s important to remember that we all share this wonderful place.

When I pointed out on Facebook that flying his drone was both inappropriate and illegal, at first he seemed to apologize, but later deleted my comment. He left the video up, and kept a comment saying it was “cool even if it is illegal.” There’s the rub, really. Ultimately, most people don’t care about the experience of the National Parks or the peace and quite that helps preserve their sanctity, as long as they get some “cool” pictures or video to plaster all over social media.

Abby and I love photographing our National Parks, but we never do it at the cost of nature or the experience of others.

Another problem with drone photography is its obnoxious overuse. It is one of those self-referential activities that becomes a goal unto itself, and tends to undermine the photographic and film-making goals. Most drone photography simply says, “Look, I have a drone.”

Chickasaw Nation photographer Brian Harrison pilots a drone while using a remote monitor to find the right shots for his video. Brian was flying his drone at a Chickasaw Nation event at Byng School, and the school pre-approved his use of the drone. This is quite a different situation than using such a device at, say, Mount Rushmore.
Chickasaw Nation photographer Brian Harrison pilots a drone while using a remote monitor to find the right shots for his video. Brian was flying his drone at a Chickasaw Nation event at Byng School, and the school pre-approved his use of the drone. This is quite a different situation than using such a device at, say, Mount Rushmore.
0

Standing on Higher Ground

“…I see the world
And I’m looking from a high place
Way above it all
Standing on higher ground…”
~Alan Parsons Project

Firefighters and police officers prepare to rescue a man who was wash downstream in floodwaters a few days ago near Stonewall, Oklahoma. I made this image from atop a flatbed truck.
Firefighters and police officers prepare to rescue a man who was wash downstream in floodwaters a few days ago near Stonewall, Oklahoma. I made this image from atop a flatbed truck.
This is the rocket ship playground piece in Ada's Glenwood Park.
This is the rocket ship playground piece in Ada’s Glenwood Park.

At this point in my career, the firefighters in my community know that I will ask if I can stand on their fire trucks, or if they have it deployed, their ladder truck, to make pictures. Just a few days ago, at the scene of a water rescue, I asked the owner of a flatbed trash truck if I could climb on it, and he obliged.

Your host poses for a selfie on the fourth stage of a playground rocket today.
Your host poses for a selfie on the fourth stage of a playground rocket today.

There are very few things I won’t climb on or ride in that are high up or flying. Not only is this an excellent strategy for getting a clearer view of everything in my photos, and a smart play for making images that are out of the ordinary, I love climbing on stuff.

This shouldn’t come as any kind of surprise for those who have read the pages of our travel blog or my photo blog and seen the extremes I’ll explore for an image. Even when I can’t get on something high or in something flying, I tend to try to get my camera as high or low as I am able to reach, for the same reason: seeing things and photographing them from a different perspective.

This is the view of Main Street in Ada from the fourth state of the Glenwood Park rocket ship.
This is the view of Main Street in Ada from the fourth state of the Glenwood Park rocket ship.

One of my assignments today was to photograph the venerable four-stage rocket ship playground piece in Ada’s Glenwood Park. It’s been around for decades. I remembered at least one previous occasions on which I squoze through the holes and ladders to reach the top to photograph a child who was playing up there, and today I decided to climb it again, just to be climbing. I vaguely remembered that it swayed back and forth with my movements the last time I was up there, and sure enough, I was right. I have to admit that as it was swaying, I thought it would be hysterically funny (in a tragic way) if it fell over and the headline in my own newspaper would say I was killed in a rocket crash.

This was the only artsy image I was able to conjure from the climb, since the view in all directions was mostly obscured by trees. Still, it was nice to be atop a rocket for a change.
This was the only artsy image I was able to conjure from the climb, since the view in all directions was mostly obscured by trees. Still, it was nice to be atop a rocket for a change.
0

First Look: the Nikon D300s

This is the Nikon D300s with its MB-D10 battery grip attached.
This is the Nikon D300s with its MB-D10 battery grip attached.
Fit and finish on the D300s are very good, and all the buttons and controls are well-made.
Fit and finish on the D300s are very good, and all the buttons and controls are well-made.

My newspaper recently handed me a new Nikon D300s. I’ve been asking for a new camera for some time, and the corporation was able to get the D300s at a deep discount since it has been discontinued.

Despite being “older” technology (which in the tech world means “not the very latest”), I am finding out early on that this camera is very capable, and able to make the images I need.

Just two days after I got my hands on the D300s, I shot an all-star basketball game at ISO 6400, and was not disappointed with the result.
Just two days after I got my hands on the D300s, I shot an all-star basketball game at ISO 6400, and was not disappointed with the result.
  • It is well-built and has all the features I need

    Take your pick:  the battery holder for the MB-D10 grip (top) with the EN-EL3 battery, or the battery chamber cover mounted on one of my EN-EL4 batteries (bottom). The EN-EL4 battery lasts longer and runs the camera at 8 frames per second, but the smaller battery in the holder weighs half as much.
    Take your pick: the battery holder for the MB-D10 grip (top) with the EN-EL3 battery, or the battery chamber cover mounted on one of my EN-EL4 batteries (bottom). The EN-EL4 battery lasts longer and runs the camera at 8 frames per second, but the smaller battery in the holder weighs half as much.
  • Its sensor is about one full exposure value cleaner than my other work cameras; I was able to shoot some basketball at ISO 6400 and it was very usable
  • It controls are similar to my D200
  • The viewfinder and monitor are big and bright
  • I got the MB-D10 vertical grip; unlike grips for cameras like the D100 and D200, it only holds one battery, but with a BL-3 battery chamber cover, I can use the big, powerful battery from my D2Hs, which allow the D300s to run at 8 frames per second

So far the camera seems to have no vices at all, and I look forward to more reviews as I get more experience with it.

All the controls on the D300s are where I expect them to be. I had this camera out of the box and shooting in about five minutes.
All the controls on the D300s are where I expect them to be. I had this camera out of the box and shooting in about five minutes.

 

0